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Grænihryggur (Green Backbone) - Fjallabak Nature Reserve.
Grænihryggur (Green Backbone) - Fjallabak Nature Reserve. Grænihryggur (Green Backbone) - Fjallabak Nature Reserve. The Fjallabak region takes its name from the numerous wild and rugged mountains with deeply incised valleys, which are found there. The topography of the Torfajökull, central volcano found within the Fjallabak Nature Reserve, is a direct result of the region being the largest rhyolite (liparite) area in Iceland and the largest geothermal area (after Grímsvötn in Vatnajökul). The Torfajökul central volcano is an active volcanic system, but is now in a declining fumarolic stage as exemplified by numerous fumaroles and hot springs. The hot pools at Landmannalaugar are but one of many manifestations of geothermal activity in the area, which also tends to alter the minerals in the rocks, causing the beautiful colour variations from red and yellow to blue and green, a good example being Brennisteinsalda. Geologists believe that the Torfajökull central volcano is a caldera, the rim being Háalda, Sudurnámur, Nordur Barmur, Torfajökull, Kaldaklofsfjöll and Ljósártungur.